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–Two-photon microscopy (brain and spinal cord imaging)
-Electrophysiology in vivo: patch-clamp, intracellular, extracellular, multi-channel;
-Functional ultrasound (fUS imaging);
High precision tests can be integrated with behavioral monitoring.
–Stable head-fixation of an awake mouse;
-No general anesthesia during habituation/training or imaging/recording;
-Efficient stress reduction due to the flat floor and natural cage environment;
-Natural tactile stimulation (cage floor and walls);
-Visual stimulation and integration with VR is possible but not required;
-The mouse controls its own movement;
-Standard size Mobile HomeCage is compact, compatible with the majority of commercial microscopes;
-Mobile HomeCage Large is the only head-fixation system that allows using real (not virtual) mazes;
-The locomotion tracking device (built into the air dispenser) allows monitoring behavior.
–Full-body restraint (combined with sucrose or water reward);
-Air-lifted styrofoam ball (combined with Virtual Reality to compensate for the lack of sensory input);
-Linear, circular or cylindrical treadmills (one-dimensional movement only).
These solutions limit the mouse’s control of its movements (granted, this may be desired under certain experimental conditions), and induce significant stress due to an unnatural environment.
Alternative DIY solutions inspired by the Mobile HomeCage design:
The AirTrack system is primarily a behavioral device. The system is too large for the majority of 2-photon microscopes; stability of head fixation has not been validated for imaging / ephys recordings
-The rotational head-fixation system from Mark Harnett’s lab (MIT) allows head movement in xy. This marginal improvement comes at the cost of a significant increase in design complexity and challenges of analyzing the imaging data.
Both the standard size Mobile HomeCage and the Mobile HomeCage Large are designed for mice and occasionally used for juvenile rats (<P20) up to 70 g. We are looking for academic partners to continue the work that we have started on adapting the Mobile HomeCage for the research in rats.
Each Mobile HomeCage system comes with ten head plates. The head plates are made from stainless steel. Soak the used head plates overnight in acetone to remove dental cement and cyanoacrylate. For more detailed instructions, read our guide to head plates.
Cranial window implantation surgery (assuming it is done well) does not affect the mouse’s lifespan and health status. At Neurotar, we keep the operated mice for up to one year. We house mice both in single and group cages.
We do not recommend implanting a chronic window before P21. Pups must be weaned from their mothers. Acute windows can be done at the neonatal stage. Window implantation in aged animals is feasible; we have operated 10+ months’ old mice for studies on Alzheimer’s disease mouse models.
The most common reason for head plate detachment is poor cleaning of the periosteum from the skull. The grip between the head plate and the skull can be improved in several ways:
-By carefully removing the periosteum and subsequently drying the skull;
-By making scratches on the surface of the skull;
-By priming the skull with a layer of tissue adhesive glue;
-By using high-quality cement/glue. We use a mixture of Rapid Repair from Panadent and Vetbond or cyanoacrylic glue.
Finally, the head plate may detach due to insufficient training, and the resulting stress and jerkiness.
Habituation consists of acclimation, handling, and training. Each stage takes roughly two days. We share acclimation, handling and training recommendations with all Mobile HomeCage user labs.
Mobile HomeCage walls provide a source of natural tactile stimulation. Since mice rely on tactile stimulation more than on their vision, visual stimulation is not necessary in our system. However, it is possible to visually stimulate mice in the Mobile HomeCage. The simplest way to do so is to put stickers on the walls of the Mobile HomeCage. For visual stimulation from a monitor or VR, use a cage with transparent walls or an extra-low wall cage (20 mm wall height). The same extra-low wall cage can be used for stimulating whiskers or delivering odors (if you need to approach the mouse from the front). An alternative option is to mount the stimulation devices on the bridge.
The cage floor and walls may be covered with stickers of different texture, and small objects can be placed on the walls or on the floor. The objects must be light as not to make the cage too heavy and impede flotation.
Liquid reward as well as negative reinforcement via air puff are possible in the Mobile HomeCage. We recommend using the lick port and air puff nozzles specially designed to attach to the Mobile HomeCage clamp. The locomotion tracking software allows automating the reward delivery or negative reinforcement for closed-loop experiments in the Mobile HomeCage.
The lick port is also handy for keeping the mouse hydrated during long experiments.
The following behavioral paradigms are validated by the Mobile HomeCage user labs or by the Neurotar team:
-Open field test for assessing baseline levels of motor and exploratory activity and for assessing anxiety;
-Novel object recognition for assessing memory processing;
-Spatial memory and learning assessment in T-maze and donut-maze;
-Social memory and social interactions’ assessment in the sociability maze;
-The resident-intruder paradigm (modified) upon photostimulation in the hypothalamic aggression locus;
-Mating behavior (limited to courting behavior, no copulation);
-Escape response to a looming visual stimulus.
Interested in other tests? Contact us to brainstorm about it.
Both intra- (whole-cell) and extracellular (cell-attached, field, single unit) recordings are possible in the Mobile HomeCage. Neurotar team and our customer labs have performed blind patch-clamping in both whole-cell and juxtacellular modes, holding the cells for up to one hour in awake behaving mice. Electrical noise is no greater than with standard patch-clamping in a brain slice setup. Also, 16-channel silicon probes and glass electrodes have been used by several research groups and produced extremely stable, high-quality recordings.
Standard-size Mobile HomeCage is compatible with the majority of commercial 2-photon microscopes. Some older microscope models require special parts. We recommend sharing the manufacturer and model of your microscope with our team before placing an order.
For a list of 2-photon microscopes that can accommodate the Mobile HomeCage Large, please see our compatibility guide. The same guide contains information about periscopic objective extensions, such as the InverterScope available from LSM Tech that can be used to make the systems compatible. We also explain how to select a xy translation stage and other accessories, e.g. micromanipulators or reward systems.
We will work with you to ensure that all critical dimensions/clearances are measured before purchasing the Mobile HomeCage (e.g., the vertical distance between the objective and xy-stage, the horizontal distance between the objective axis and the microscope frame, etc).
The Mobile HomeCage requires an airflow of 120 L/min; the Mobile HomeCage Large – 150 L/min and the MultiCage Training Arena – 250 L/min. The air pressure requirement is less critical: 0,1-0,2 bar pressure is sufficient.
In most cases, the Mobile HomeCage can operate from a standard air source. If your air source does not satisfy the above requirements, use a portable air pump. Contact us for recommendations. Do not use pressurized air tanks, as they will run out of air very quickly.
Please note that most noise in the system is generated by the air source. The simplest way to reduce noise is to place the Mobile HomeCage away from the air source, e.g., in an adjacent room, or to build an enclosure for the air source.
Use 70% ethanol solution to clean the carbon fiber cage with a soft cloth. Do not use abrasive sponges, acid cleansers, bleach, and other aggressive products. Do not autoclave. The room temperature where the cage is stored must not exceed 40 degrees Celsius.
The foam cages are consumables: while liquids can be wiped off with a paper towel, neither liquid nor smell can be completely removed. We recommend using individual foam cages and mazes for each animal; it is possible to use the same cage / maze multiple times for the same animal.
OS: Windows 10 64-bit or Windows 11 64-bit.
CPU (mobile/laptop): any 4-core, 2020, or newer processor.
RAM: at least 6 GB.
Ports: one type-A USB 3.0 port.
Storage: approx. 400 megabytes per hour of recording.
The latest version of the software can be found in the customer portal. For access, contact support.
Yes, the software is free for all customer lab members. It can be downloaded from the customer portal. For access contact support with the name and email of the person(s) who needs access.
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